Introduction

Research is being conducted in order to ultimately answer and gather evidence to support for a specific topic involving the NAMES Project and the AIDS Memorial Quilt.

The first quilt, and the center of my research is the Aids Treatment Center Stony Brook panel. I am also investigating other quilts with similar stories to this panel, though I will not write a Primary Source Description for these quilts. I plan to use these panels to connect to the Stony Brook center to other centers like it during the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

The second quilt I am researching is one produced by Drew University for World’s AIDS Day. This panel was chosen because, like the Stony Brook panel, it commemorates a community of whom many were lost to HIV/AIDS.

Though the Stony Brook panel represents a small corner of the country, it is connected to a much bigger issue—the death surrounding HIV/AIDs. Although we have a much different epidemic on our hands, I would argue that the HIV/AIDS crisis and the opioid crisis are not so different.

To support this idea, I am using three umbrella questions to guide my research. The first question is: what information can be learned about the Stony Brook Aids Treatment Center. Within this umbrella questions lie many smaller questions like: who funded it, who benefits from it, who works there, who can attend. Through this question I can find a lot of information to help me support my claim.

The second question fueling my research is: what can I learn about the drug crisis in the modern day? By researching more about the opioid crisis, I can learn things like: what is happening, who is being affected, and how it is spreading.

This information will lead me to my final research question: how are the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the opioid epidemic similar and different? This question will help me understand the correlation between the past and the present. With this information I can link HIV/AIDS treatment centers, like Stony Brook, to the modern health care system and how we treat such crises.

 

Bibliography

“A Timeline of HIV and AIDS.” (n.d.). Retrieved from HIV.gov: https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/history/hiv-and-aids-timeline

There is no listed author for this website, but it is a government page dedicated to HIV/AIDS, and it includes a timeline of HIV/AIDS with important developments in the sequence of events. This source includes statistic data, references important legislation regarding HIV/AIDS, and lists important events concerning HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this timeline is to not only to show people the sequence of events and important developments, but also to illustrate how attitudes have changed from the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic to the modern attitudes towards the disease. The audience for this source is people who casually want to know more about the topic as opposed to a scholarly audience. Others whom might find this information useful are those who are researching the development and change in events.

This article does not directly connect to my panel per say, but for my Primary Source Description I was able to make a connection between the progressive legislation examples featured on this web page to the sun rise. There are no other connections that I can make as this web page is about a movement as opposed to one specific thing.

 

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “Overdose Deaths Involving Opioids, by Type of Opioid, United States, 2000-2016.” JPEG file. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/index.html.

The image that I am citing comes from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention which is considered the author or creator of this image, but the researchers involved in collecting the data are not listed. The information conveyed in this image is the statistical evidence of the number of deaths each year from 2000 to 2016. The CDC wishes to inform the general population of the seriousness of this epidemic as it included on a page that communicates the different types of drugs causing death. The intended audience seems to be more for the general population as opposed to scholarly audience because it uses less scientific language to convey its information. While it may be an important piece of information for my topic, one could use this support that up until recently, natural, and synthetic opioids had a higher mortality rate than heroin.

This doesn’t directly relate to my panel, but through the Stony Brook quilt, I will be able to connect the HIV/AIDS epidemic to the modern drug epidemic. In my final analysis I will use the information conveyed above to give background to the drug epidemic. Mainly, I will use this to focus on how an increasing amount of people are dying from overdose and make a connection to Stony Brook through the medical center they developed to help the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

 

Des Jarlais, Don C., et al. “Racial/Ethnic Disparities at the End of an HIV Epidemic: Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City, 2011-2015.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 107, no. 7, July 2017, pp. 1157-1163. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=13e85d4d-f024-4d94-a94f-98e7f23c8339%40sessionmgr4009

A group of individuals wrote this source, all of whom are associated with universities in New York. It focuses on the differences between the racial/ethnic groups that used to get HIV/AIDS and the groups most likely to contract it today, mainly through injecting needles. To support their claims, they use statistics from a survey they conducted in which their participants were in a methadone detoxification program. They published this research to encourage others research to continue in different directions. The intended audience seems to be one of a more scholarly background, mainly other researchers. This research may be useful to someone who is researching the different ways people contracted HIV/AIDS.

This source is important for my research because I can include it in my final analysis. I plan to use it in section 2 in which I will examine the modern drug crises. This source could help support my claim and help me link HIV/AIDS to this health issue.

 

Ford, Jason A and Khary K Rigg. “Racial/Ethnic Differences in Factors That Place Adolescents at Risk for Prescription Opioid Misuse.” Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research, vol. 16, no. 5, July 2015, pp. 633-641. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=8600e277-3527-483e-9bfc-042941a4a49c%40sessionmgr4007

As opposed to the previous source, this one only has two authors– Jason A Ford and Khary Rigg. This source also examines racial and ethnic factors that tie into the opioid crisis, however, this one focuses on the misuse of prescription medicines and how youth are at risk of overdose (Ford, Jason A and Khary K Rigg). The purpose of this source is to expand the knowledge on this topic and give more information that previous studies do not contain or examine to have a better understanding of how adolescents are impacted. It seems to be intended for professionals who are involved with youth that misuse opioids, mainly those with a psychology background. A person that is researching the psychological effect opioids have on youth would find this source helpful.

I was drawn to this source by its title. Since I know that race and ethnicity was a factor of the likeliness of contracting HIV/AIDS in the 90’s, especially among those who injected drugs with needles, I was interested in seeing how it affected overdoses today. Since this source is about adolescents, it will most likely not be included in my final analysis, but it was a good lead.

 

“HIV and AIDS — United States, 1981-2000.” (2001, 6 8). Retrieved from CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5021a2.htm

There are no specific authors for this page, and there are no researchers or scientists from the information came listed, but the information is form the official Center for Disease Control website. This source offers statistical data and graphs that represent how different groups were infected with HIV/AIDS; these come from different surveys and research groups. The intended purpose for this page seems to be to inform people of trends from the past to prevent the same from repeating. This article seems to be geared towards more scholarly audiences. This source would be useful for people doing research on the statistics of the HIV/AIDS virus particularly on who was most likely to catch the virus in this period.

Once again it is not directly connected to my panel, but I was able to use the data to understand more about the victims and what sub-cultural groups were most likely to contract HIV/AIDS in this period. I came across this source whilst conducting research for my Primary Source Description, but I am planning to also include it into my final analysis. With this information, I can make a connection between the groups most likely to contract HIV/AIDS at the height of its epidemic to the groups most likely to become victims of the opioid epidemic that has plagued the United States for the last 20 years.

 

“HIV Program.” (n.d.). Retrieved from Stony Brook School of Medicine: https://medicine.stonybrookmedicine.edu/medicine/infectious_diseases/HIV

This page has no author, but it is on the web page for the Stony Brook School of Medicine. It does not offer any statistical evidence, but it describes the HIV program and its foundation. The purpose of this page is to inform potential patients of the history of the their program, how it has evolved and how it can help them. The intended audience is victims of HIV/AIDS as potential patients. This information found on this page is useful for victims who may be planning to go there to receive treatment.

I came across this source whilst researching the name on the panel. This page relates to my panel in that the HIV program is part of or was formerly known as the AIDS treatment center from which my panel originates. I was able to incorporate it into my Primary Source Description, and I am planning to utilize it in my final analysis. The information provided on this web page gives critical details about the center itself. Such details will be examined in section 1 of my final analysis.

 

King, Nicholas B., et al. “Determinants of Increased Opioid-Related Mortality in the United States and Canada, 1990–2013: A Systematic Review.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 104, no. 8, Aug. 2014, pp. e32-e42.

This source was written by a group of people associated with Canadian Universities, and it is about opioid related mortality, the factors that play into these deaths, and how these factors interact in a complex way (King, Nicholas B., et al.). To support their claim, they investigated 3 databases for articles published within the period in which they were researching. Their purpose for writing this article was “to systematically…review evidence regarding determinants of increased opioid-related mortalities…” (King, Nicholas B., et al.). Its intended audience seems to be those who can help prevent opioid misuse, such as clinicians, public health officials and legislators. In addition to my research, this information could be useful for someone researching the history and evolution of the opioid crisis.

Amid my research, this article attracted me because of its title. In one of my sections, I plan to compare the death rates of the HIV/AIDS epidemic at its height to the death rates of the opioid crisis. To do this, I can use the statistics from this article and compare them to another source that focuses on HIV/AIDS.

 

Mastroianni, Peter. “HIV Testing and Counseling.” The Statesman [Stony Brook, NY], 5 May. 1994, pg 14.

This article was written by Peter Mastroianni in 1994, and it is about how to decide whether one should or should not get HIV tested. It does not give evidence so much as it explains the HIV test. It was written in order to inform people of reasons to consider getting and to show there is support for those infected with the HIV virus. The intended audience is the student population in 1994, more specifically those with a high risk of receiving HIV and those wishing to start families. This source may be useful for someone who is researching university outreach towards potential HIV/AIDS victims.

As I was searching through the newspaper of Stony Brook University, I came across this article. I was drawn to it because it talked about HIV testing. Once I read through the article, I was intrigued by the, what I interpreted as, caring for fellow students. To me, the author seemed legitimately concerned for others and wanted them to help themselves by being tested. I will include this in my final analysis because it shows that the AIDS Center was open to students for testing.

 

McDevitt, Teresa M., et al. “Correlates of Attitudes toward AIDS.” Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 130, no. 5, Oct. 1990, pp. 699-701.

From a collaboration of four authors– Teresa M. McDevitt, Eugene P. Sheehan, Randy Lennon, and Anthony L. Ambrosio– comes this source which explores how gender affected the attitudes towards AIDS in the late 1980s (McDevitt, et al.). To support their claim, they include evidence gathered through an investigation. The goal of such an investigation is to study the attitudes towards AIDS at the time and if there is a correlation between those attitudes and the ones towards gender and sexuality at the time. Through this journal section, the authors seem to want to reach an audience of a more scholarly type as the information in this section might be useful for someone doing research involving gender and sexuality studies in the late 1980s.

I was initially drawn into this source because of the title as I was originally looking into the attitudes towards HIV/AIDS victims during this period. However, I am now looking into the correlation between HIV/AIDS epidemic at its height and the drug epidemic of today. Therefore, this will not be included in my final analysis.

 

Mori, Angela. “The Tradition of the Quilts.” The Statesman [Stony Brook, NY], 11 April. 1994, pg 7.

Angela Mori wrote this article, and it talks about the AIDS Quilt itself. The article includes a brief description of the quilt, its creation, and a timeline of the major events that the quilt was involved in up to that point in time. The purpose of this article was to give background information of the NAMES Project and the AIDS Quilt to the school population because Stony Brook University was hosting the quilt that month. As mentioned before, the intended audience was the University community, more specifically those interested in viewing the AIDS Quilt. This source could be useful for someone who is researching places that have hosted the quilt or is composing a timeline of the places the quilt has been.

This article drew me into it by its topic. This can be connected to my panel in that it literally talks about the AIDS Quilt, but other than that there is not much correlation. I could incorporate this source as support for the background info of the quilt, but it will most likely not be used.

 

Price, Shelley. “AIDS and STDs Spark Concern Across Campus.” The Statesman [Stony Brook, NY], 7 April. 1994, pg 11.

The author of this article was a student at Stony Brook University during the 1993-94 school year, and she talks about during the peak of AIDS awareness, how casual sex was on the rise, but students were unconcerned about the possibility of getting an STD (Shelley). Shelley offers the statistics of Chlamydia and genital warts cases at the clinic treated during the prior school year. The purpose of this article is to raise the student populations awareness toward STDs and encourage them to use protection if engaging in casual sex. The intended audience is the student population at Stony Brook University. This source may be useful to anyone doing research on “STDs at universities during this period.

When I originally came across this source, I was drawn in by the title of this piece. Before changing my topic, I was unsure of how to stitch this piece into my project, but now that I am focusing a bit more on the medical center itself, I can use this information. I am planning to take the angle that part of the Stony Brook Health Center was dedicated for students as it gave tips to students to protect themselves.

 

Witt, L. Alan. “Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Persons with AIDS.” Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 130, no. 1, Feb. 1990, pp. 127-129.

This academic journal written by L. Alan Witt described different attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS up to 1990 and how those attitudes came to be. According to Witt, those who were afraid of contracting HIV/AIDS were less likely to have negative opinions towards those with HIV/AIDS (Witt). The author uses a survey of undergraduate male and female students to support this claim. The purpose of this source is to relay the information found in the authors study to show how bias can affect the opinions of others about HIV/AIDS. The audience intended for this source seems to be that of a scholarly audience–university faculty or fellow researches alike. The information provided in this journal could prove useful to someone researching the history or psychology of people during this time.

Originally, I was planning to use this using this source to establish a connection to attitudes across university campuses across the nation, but now that I am no longer pursuing that lead, this source is not useful. I will not be using this in my final analysis.